- Vicarious learning – learners are aware of the learning activity of others
- Direct learning from others – the learner asks a question and receives an answer
- Implicit learning – the learner learns without awareness of what has been learned
- Knowledge sharing – the learner passes on ideas and information that are taken up by others
- Conversational learning – the learner engages in sustained dialogue with others
- Orchestrated collaboration – a mentor guides a group towards exploration of difference or towards shared understanding
- Shared knowledge building – the learner develops knowledge with others through interaction around a shared representation
- Zone of proximal development (ZPD) – the learner learns through interaction and conversation with a more knowledgeable other.